....     ..   .... .... ....


Books on:



Mass Media









Advertising Reach and Frequency. Maximizing Advertising Results through Effective Frequency






McDonald C. Advertising Reach and Frequency. Maximizing Advertising Results Through Effective Frequency – Lincolnwood, Ill. : NTC Business Books, 1996. – 157 p.

Second edition.

First edition by Michael J. Naples









The Importance of Effective Frequency

Media Cost Escalation

The Effects of Media Costs and Fragmentation on Planning

The Plan of This Book



Problems with the Concept of Effective Frequency

Frequency of What?

Frequency When?

What Effects?



Foundations from Psychological Learning Theory and Research



Jakobovits and Appel


Heflin and Haygood

Krugman–The "Three-Hit Theory"

Zielske and Krugman -Are They Describing the SameThing?



Short-Term Effects of Frequency on Purchasing Behavior: The McDonald Study

How Individuals Respond to Advertising

Within-Person Measurement

The McDonald Study





What Followed the McDonald Study

Limitations of the McDonald Study

JWT/TVS 1984 Study

Central TV Adlab

The Scanner Revolution

STAS (Short-Term Advertising Strength)

The Evidence That Response Curves Tend to Be Convex

S-Shapes Are Not Ruled Out



Ogilvy & Mather: An Experimental Study of Three Television Dayparts

Design of the Ogilvy & Mather Study

Results of the Study

Major Advertiser AdTel Scheduling Study

Background of AdTel Cable Television System

Design of the Study

Technical Description

Results of the Study


Print Advertising

New Studies on Print

Bogart, Tolley, and Orenstein: Print Ads Can

Stimulate Short-Term Buying

The Time-Seagram Study: Evidence for Frequency Effects

The Family Circle Study of Print Advertising


Ziff-Davis: A Clustered OTS "Frequency"

Business-to-Business Advertising: The ARF/ABP Study

Millward Brown

Notes 113


What Are We Now in a Position to Conclude?

Summary of Revised Conclusions

What Still Needs to Be Found Out



Implications for Media Planning


Use of the "Effective Frequency" Concept

Effective Reach

Persuasion Versus Reminding

Frequency and Competitive Noise

Multiplication of Models

Concluding Comments




About the Author




Publication of the original edition of Effective Frequency in 1979 was the culmination of a great deal of industry exploratory research, discussion, and debate on the subject together with the new availability of research studies specifically designed and carried out to probe the relationship between frequency of exposure to advertising and consumer response. In his foreword to the original edition, Herbert E. Krugman succinctly summarized both the demand the book sought to fulfill as well as its intended contribution.

The need for a current review of what is known about frequency springs in part from an escalation of media costs in recent years, especially in television, and the increased concern among advertisers not to spend more than is necessary and/or sufficient. Although precise levels of sufficiency require individual research on individual brands and markets, general guidelines and examples do emerge from the information presented in this book.

The book summarized the then-existing body of knowledge about effective frequency, including relevant proprietary studies which had been released to the Association of National Advertisers Research Policy Committee in order to round out the evidence brought to bear on this important media subject. Its publication substantially affected how media planners scheduled not only television, but radio and print as well. Yet, in doing so, many planners tended to oversimplify the application of general guidelines and conclusions into a 3-plus rule-of-thumb, which in turn legitimately led to a growth of criticism and debate about the concept of effective frequency.

It had been my hope in 1979 that we were on the leading edge of a new age of relevant data availability, both from the universal product code scanner as well as single-source data laboratories, which would lead to increased research on individual brands with regard to reach and frequency – and indeed from time to time over the past 16 years such research has been undertaken. Moreover, several ground-breaking print studies have been conducted, and in general the subject has become one of growing academic interest, bringing with it examination and constructive debate.

Given all that has gone before, together with more recent information and renewed interest in the concept, now seemed an appropriate time to revise the original edition. Moreover, the media itself has changed dramatically in recent years. Today's media world is one of high cable, vcr, and remote control penetration, greater broadcast and print fragmentation, and the emerging interactive era. The result is that there is, if anything, more interest today in the concept of effective frequency and its potential value for efficient media placement than ever before.

To update our knowledge on the subject I suggested that Colin McDonald, the noted British researcher and advertising analysis pioneer, undertake an updated edition incorporating all relevant information and debate on the concept since 1979. As you will see, as you become absorbed in the text of Advertising Reach and Frequency: Maximizing Advertising Results Through Effective Frequency, he has admirably summarized a great deal of new information and brought a much clearer perspective and a sharper degree of understanding of the underlying assumptions regarding effective frequency and how we as practitioners should view this information today.

While the subject of advertising frequency is no less difficult and challenging today, I am confident that Colin McDonald's incisive examination set forth here will provide a constructive basis for genuine progress.

Michael J. Naples, President, Advertising Research Foundation

The full text of the book can be found at bookstores, e-bookstores and libraries.


Вернуться к содержанию Каталога книг о рекламе, PR и СМИ



See also:

Principles and Practices of Classified Advertising

Principles of Advertising

Successful Direct Marketing Methods

Books on Advertising

Books on PR

Books on Mass Media