Jugenheimer D. Advertising Media – Columbus, Ohio : Grid Publishing Inc., 1980. – 220 p.
Section I Development
This book is organized in the same way that the advertising media planning and buying process is organized: start with evaluation, then plans, then selection, and then complete the media buying. This type of logical organization should help the reader follow and understand the media process.
One warning,... however: do not attempt to read only the first section or two of the book, and then complete that much of the media planning process, and later go on to other sections of the book. You should read the entire book, understand the entire process thoroughly, and only then attempt to apply the information and the process to the actual media situation. Better still, try to work with the problems and illustrations and examples that you will find throughout the book, and then put them together in an integrated approach to the advertising media process.
Before you can understand the details of the media process as it is used in advertising, you will need some sort of overview to help you comprehend the "bigger picture" of how the process functions and how the various parts fit together. That is what this first section of the book does: it provides a look at the development of advertising media planning with an introduction, an overview, and an understanding of how the parts of the process work and fit together.
Advertising media planning, as an significant part of the advertising process, has only within the last ten years come into its own. For a long time, the media function in advertising received less than its share of attention. The creative function, as copywriting and artwork and layout are termed, received most of the emphasis. The advertisement itself is what sells a product or service or idea (and also may likely sell an advertising campaign idea to a potential advertiser), so the processes involved in creating that advertisement were given most of the attention and emphasis. When making presentations of prospective campaigns, advertising agency executives would devote most of their time to the copy and art and layout of the advertisements, with relatively little time for research, media, budgeting, or postcampaign effectiveness.
IMPORTANCE OF THE MEDIA FUNCTION
There may be more natural inherent interest in the advertisements themselves than there is in the evaluation and selection of the media in which those advertisements are to appear. Research and media and budgeting and follow-up evaluations involve, by necessity, great amounts of hard work with data and facts and figures and numbers, and there is less evidence of creative genius than in copywriting or in art.
In recent years, however, advertising media operations have earned more attention. In times of economic difficulties, saving money became important. Rising inflationary spirals created even more pressures on advertisers, their agencies, and the advertising media, to avoid squandering resources, especially financial resources, and to become more frugal. Stretching advertising budgets suddenly became an important goal, and deriving every possible benefit from a set amount of money evolved into an important objective of advertising practice.
The problem was, however, that there was little saving possible in most areas of advertising. Creative work is essential, and to scrimp on copywriting is a selfdefeating solution. Research must also be done, although perhaps advertisers could save by relying on facts that are already available rather than performing their own primary research surveys and experiments. In the media function, too, it was impossible to do without media planning or buying or checking, for all are important contributions to the total success of an advertising campaign.
The media function is the one area, however, where many persons reasoned that advertising could become more efficient. Attempting to reach more people in larger audiences with less waste has provided real opportunities to economize in advertising without sacrificing any important communication effectiveness. In fact, making advertising media operations more efficient not only saves money, but focuses on the best prospects and thereby makes the advertising more effective and productive.
Because of this return on the investment in advertising media analysis, it has been possible for marketing-media managers to contribute even more to the overall success of advertising. It also has been possible for advertising to save time for members of the media audiences because increased advertising media efficiency has meant that people who are not bonafide prospective customers for a product or service are now less likely to see advertising for goods and services that do not interest them. More people are being communicated to for each dollar of advertising investment; greater selectivity on the part of the media themselves has replaced the once-popular consideration of audience size as the only critical factor; fewer messages need be directed to people who are not interested or who are not prospective customers.
The emergence of the media function has brought a new realization that the media function not only controls and spends most of the monies that flow through advertising, but it also commands most of the campaign expenditure. Take a typical advertiser of a packaged good, using advertising to promote the product and induce sales. The actual advertising effort is coordinated by an advertising agency. The agency takes care of most of the strategic and tactical problems that are associated with advertising; the advertiser (the agency's client) is involved principally in the planning and budgeting stages, with approval powers over all aspects of the advertising effort. The advertising agency receives a commission from the media in which the advertisements are placed, and the standard industry practice is for the media to grant a 15 percent commission to the agency. The remainder, 85 percent of the advertising budget, goes directly to the media. Of the commission, part of that 15 percent is again devoted to the media function within the advertising agency. Commonly, about 90 percent of all the money spent on advertising, then, is devoted to the media or to the media function, and the remaining amount is left for all the other advertising functions: research, copywriting, art, layout, evaluation, planning, budgeting, and the like.
With the realization that most of the advertising budget is, in one way or another, expended on media, the media function has risen higher in the hierarchy of advertising functions.
One way to look at the media function is as part of the overall advertising effort, but then one must also consider that advertising is but a part of the overall marketing effort. It is vital that advertising's contributions to marketing be thoroughly understood before we examine the media contribution to advertising.
Within marketing there are four basic variables, which the well-known marketing educator Jerome McCarthy describes as "Product, Place, Price, and Promotion". The product can be an actual good that is to be marketed, or it can be a service or an idea. In the study of marketing and advertising, it is convenient to think of a product that is being sold and advertised, but the principles that apply to goods apply equally well to ideas and to services that are to be sold and advertised, too. The place portion of the marketing mix is involved with distributing the product, service, or idea to the proper target. Price is the agreed-upon value that is set on the item to be sold. And promotion is telling the customer about the product for sale, to communicate and help the sale take place. There may, of course, be other incidental variables that arise within the marketing mix, such as packaging (which may be part of the product, or of promotion, or a combination of both), product planning (which is usually involved with the product itself), brand policy, service, and other similar considerations. Most marketing functions however can be found in one of the four basic variables that are mentioned above.
Next, it is important for us to examine what is involved in promotion. It may involve a variety of functions, such as sales promotion (premium offers, contests, cents-off deals, and the like), personal selling (sales clerks in stores or sales representatives calling on business), public relations, publicity, and advertising.
Then advertising can itself be broken into a kind of "advertising mix" that includes research, creative, and evaluative efforts, and, of course, media. A diagram of the marketing mix, promotion mix, and advertising mix may look something like this.
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